The Global Ecological Project "ALIVE WATER" -
new technologies of drinking water and
cool air obtaining from the high-latitude ice
The Project "Alive Water" bears a global character, since it is aimed at the supplying population of water-requiring regions and areas of the Earth with high-quality drinking water. In the way, suggested below, the Project "Alive Water" is considered as a regional one on the example of its implementation in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula as a region strongly needing high-quality drinking water
The purpose of the suggested Project "Alive Water" is an enhancement of the environmental situation in the Arabian Peninsula; a creation of the favourable microclimate in its cities and settlements, in the places of accommodation and movement of pilgrims during Hadjj; an improvement of people's health by delivering and supplying the population of the countries of the Arabian Peninsula with ecologically pure, thawed fresh water received from ice, which is delivered from Antarctic Continent.
The formulated purposes can be achieved by solving of organizational, scientific and engineering problems of delivering ice from Antarctic Continent to the Arabian Peninsula and keeping the competitiveness of the water received from this ice.
The Author of the Project has elaborated principally new scientific and theoretical approaches to solving of problems of environmental protection and supplying the Region with fresh water, and accordingly new technologies having the world priority and patent protected.
The main stages of the offered technologies on extraction, delivering and utilization of ice are: extraction of ice-blocks weighing many thousand tons from an iceberg or a glacier with ice-cutters; hauling down of the ice-blocks into water; loading from water into a hold of a vessel of an original design - trimaran-ledovoz; transportation of ice and its unloading in a port of destination into a special ice-receiving plant, where the sun and the incoming hot outside air cause ice to thaw, transforming it into the thawed water. The air, which is cooled down, can be used for industrial and household purposes.
In order to avoid the deadheading (empty voyages} of the trimarans-ledovozes, on the way back they are loaded with the accompanying cargo, which is stowed in a new floating system of an original design - barcon, which are placed and transported in the hold of the trimaran-ledovoz. The barcons are used for the transportation of all kind of cargoes - oil, liquefied gas, containers, free-flowing freights, timber etc.
The Author has invented and patented the designs of trimarans-ledovozes, the methods of loading-unloading of ice-blocks, the methods of transportation of ice-blocks by trimarans-ledovozes, the designs of ice-cutters - devices for the extraction of ice-blocks, the methods of extracting ice-blocks from an iceberg, the plants and the methods of fresh water and cool air obtaining from ice, the floating system barcon. The Author has made 3 PCT-Applications for the inventions.
The found engineering solutions provide minimum costs at each technological stage that as a result ensure a very low cost price (one-two US cents for a litre) of the obtained "alive" thawed water, which is competitive with the cost price of the water received at nuclear and thermal water-desalinating plants.
Successful solution of the technical problems on delivery of ice allows to start the implementation of the large-scale environmental Project, aimed at the principal improvement of population's health in the Region, the microclimate softening and enhancement of the Region's environmental system.
The Project envisages that the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, having built a fleet of 40-50 trimarans-ledovozes of 50-100 thousand tons displacement each for transporting millions of tons of ice, will start delivering it to the situated at the coast ice-receiving plants for its further processing.
Full-scale implementation of the Project will allow today to give up building new nuclear and thermal water-desalinating plants in the Region, and in the future to give up the already built ones. Undoubtedly, this will positively affect the environmental safety of the Region, where dozens, and in the nearest future hundreds of millions of tons of the thawing ice, absorbing a lot of heat from the atmosphere during the thawing process, will stabilize the climate and improve the ecology of the Arabian Region. This will serve as an impressive example to the rest of the world.
One of the main results of implementation of the given Project will be the population's health improvement in the countries of the Peninsula, since the thawed water is truly curative, "alive" water from the medical point of view. According to the UNESCO data, 80% of humane diseases relate to the poor quality drinking water, therefore the realization of this policy as early as in few years will result in the total improvement of health of the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula. Thus one of the main postulates of medicine will be carried out - prophylaxis of diseases is the best remedy for their treatment.
The Project envisages that excess of the thawed water will be broadly used in the agriculture, since it is known that the thawed water, for example, considerably raises egg-laying qualities of hens, at that all eggs are of a first-rate quality, and the productivity of vegetables increases by two-three times. All this can not be said regarding the desalinated "lifeless" water. The unoccupied water resources received at the water-desalinating plants can be directed to creation of green zones and oases all over the Peninsula.
In opinion of specialists, the author of the Project has solved the problem of supplying the pilgrims' tents and routes of their movement to the sacred places during Hadjj time with fresh water and cool air. It is stipulated that from the ice-receiving plants situated in the port of Jeddah by the isolated underground pipes with the help of compressor stations the cool air and the thawed water are fed to Mecca's environs, where via a distributive system they get into pilgrims' tents and premises (fig. 1).
The cool air by the suspending constructions will be fed to the pilgrims' routes to the sacred places. All the necessary computations on using of ice for cooling of the meat of the sacrificed animals (before shipment to a place of destination) were also made. Such solution of the problem meets the requirements of fundamentality and profitability of the approach.
In the official magazine "Our Planet" of the United Nations Environment Programme (volume 11, number 1, 2000) it is pointed out:
"Humanity's use of freshwater soared sixfold over the last century, and continues to rise. Demand is expected to increase by over a third over the next 25 years - and to almost double for drinking water. And yet it is getting scarcer. Already one-third of the world's people live in countries, where water is in short supply; by 2025 two-thirds of them will do so. About one in every five people on Earth now lacks safe drinking water.
Some 2 billion hectares of arable and grazing land worldwide - an area larger than the United States and Mexico combined - have been moderately or severely degraded, reducing its ability to produce food. Desertification costs the world 42 billion US dollars a year in lost income and soil erosion puts the livelihoods of nearly a billion people at risk.
Acquifers of underground water, built up over millennia, are being exploited faster than they can be replenished; every year 160 billion tons of water are being "mined" in this way in China, India, North Africa, Saudi Arabia and the United States alone. Meanwhile international tensions over shared rivers are rising, threatening water wars".
The situation on the Arabian Peninsula is even more severe.
Countries of the Arabian Peninsula and Middle East are situated in one of the most droughty parts of the planet, where the water reserves form only 0,7% of the world reserves, and the renewable water resources do not exceed 1% of the world potential. Correspondingly, the water resources per capita form in average 1,5 thousand cubic metres per year against 13 thousand cubic metres in average per capita of the rest of the world. Such situation is expected not only as an economic crisis in the Region, but as an impending environmental catastrophe. For these countries the problem of water balance long ago became a problem of live support, an annually growing priority of the national safety.
For several decades already the world science has persistently been searching for ways of supplying the water-requiring regions and countries with fresh water, but something cardinal able to stop the impending catastrophe has not been offered. Although there are nuclear and solar sea-water desalinating plants, systems obtaining fresh water by the means of atmospheric precipitation, various adsorbing systems, none of these ways either separately, or all together is able to solve this global problem.
Because of absence of competitive projects of supplying the water-requiring countries with fresh water, in 1970 the World Bank for Reconstruction and Development took a decision about the concentrated financial investing into the seawater desalinating technology as the main way of providing the water-requiring countries with both drinking and industrial water.
Science have estimated that two-thirds of fresh water are concentrated in glaciers of high latitudes of the planet. During a rather long period of time various projects on delivery of ice from Antarctic Continent, Greenland have been arising. The question, as a rule, was about a practically unrealizable propulsion of icebergs by vessels and about unprofitable transportation of quick-thawing ice-crumbs by tankers. None of this numerous projects has been realized so far, although it is clear that solving the problems of ice delivery at a competitive price would become the best way of supplying people with water - thawed water.
Since long ago the thawed water has been called "alive" water. Its health-giving abilities have been described in many scientific works, and the gustatory sense of beverages on its basis is exceptionally high. Doesn't that fact that the Queen of England Elizabeth I in the 16th century nominated a prize of ten thousand pounds sterling to anyone, who will find the cheap way of obtaining of the thawed water, tell about the understanding of its usefulness for men's health. The absence in the thawed water of any heavy particles, its ability, in contradistinction to usual one, to actively percolate through membrane into cells, renovating and purifying them, its ability to preserve its structure and molecular connections inherent in ice for a long period of time - that is the secret of the "alive" water. After having got into an organism, this water does not require the organism's energy for its restructuring in order to be digested. This water is particularly valuable and indispensable for the elderly people with their weakened exchange processes and tendency of the organism's dehydration. It facilitates the activity of all internal organs in human body, improves blood structure. After six months of its utilization it completely removes all the wastes and toxins out of cells, ameliorates the functioning of cardiovascular and nervous systems, head and spinal cord, normalizes muscles' activity, improves both general state of health and capability for work. Scientists-gerontologists all over the world agree about the fact that the thawed water's utilization by high-landers saves them from many diseases that affect people, who live on plain lands, and besides, provides their longevity. The obtained thawed water can be mineralized at customer's will or according to the requirements made on this or that kinds of drinks. This can be achieved easily and cheaply.
The objective of the Project is supplying of the population of the countries of the Arabian Peninsula and pilgrims during Hadjj with the ecologically pure, thawed, fresh water received from ice of Antarctic Continent, and using of fresh water for enhancement of ecosystem in the Region.
The strategy of the Project is carrying out of the necessary complex scientific, technical and engineering research and development, construction of trimarans-ledovozes, coastal infrastructure, ice-cutting and other necessary equipment.
From all available water resources on the Earth, only 2,5% is fresh , at that 2/3 of it is located in the form of ice in Antarctic Continent, Greenland, Alaska. As we can see, there is no other source in the world able to meet the growing need in fresh water, and the projects of propulsion of icebergs have been discussed for a long period of time. But so far they have not been realized because of the technical complexities, while the gathering and transportation of quick-thawing ice-crumbs turned to be unprofitable.
The Author of the Project has become sure that ice should be obtained one or another way in places of its location and in solid and liquid state should be delivered to consumers by sea. It was necessary to decide what - ice or water - should be loaded and transported. It is obvious that there are three ways of delivery of ice, provided by today's level of technical development:
But it turned out that all the above-mentioned ways too much increase the cost price of delivering of ice and water, making it noncompetitive.
The analysis and calculations carried out by the Author showed that in order to keep the Project profitable, it is necessary to extract ice-blocks weighing several thousand tons from an iceberg and deliver to a place of destination in the form of ice, at that the transportation on multi-thousand distances from Antarctic Continent to the Arabian Peninsula should be carried out by ships with more than 40 thousand tons displacement, and at the same time the loading should take only one-two days. But the modern level of engineering in a sphere of cargo handling technologies and mechanisms does not allow to operate with such weights and dimensions, and the area of extraction (Antarctic Continent, Greenland) is not really suitable for the large stationary constructions and mechanisms. Moreover, the today's fleet is not acquainted with a design of ships able to take aboard and carry out transportation of such huge ice-blocks. It was necessary to find answers to many questions.
How and using what equipment can ice be extracted? What form and size should the ice-blocks be made of? How must be carried out loading and unloading and what kind of vessels may transport ice? How should the delivered ice be utilized to the best advantage? What will be the cost of each technological stage and the total cost price of one litre of obtained water? And the most important, how will the extraction and exportation of millions of tons of ice affect the environmental situation in Antarctic Continent, as well as the importation of ice in such amounts affect the environmental situation on the Arabian Peninsula?
The work carried out by the Author has resulted in the essentially new, innovative engineering and technical solutions embodied in dozens of inventions in various spheres of science and technics, and which allow to solve the problem of delivery of ice at a competitive cost price to countries of the Arabian Peninsula, at that will promote an increase of environmental safety in the Region.
Let us see brief description of the technology.
In general outline the work on extraction and loading of ice-blocks is carried out in the following way. The expedition's main base with all the necessary repair and subsidiary services, helicopter and aircraft fleet, special machinery, towboats and another essential for work equipment and tackle is based, for example, on the island of Kerguelen. A brigade of ice-getters with the necessary equipment, tools and fuel reserves takes off from the island and lands on a chosen iceberg of a certain size, with a flat surface high enough from the sea surface, examined for the purpose of steadiness and durability.
The first stage is extraction of ice blocks. In practice, the extraction technology lies in a thermal effect on ice of an ice-cutter of an original design, which by smelting the ice underneath, sinks on cables or bars into the body of the iceberg at the predetermined extent. Having set the necessary configuration and computer program of the ice-cutter, we cut out an ice block of the required form and size. The last technological operation before hauling down-sliding the ice-block into water is undercutting of the bottom of the ice-block that will be executed with a special bottom ice-cutter. The slid into the sea ice-block is towed to a trimaran-ledovoz. That is, strictly speaking, the whole of operation on extraction of ice. Although a great many of details of this technological stage are not described here, but even from the stated above it is clear that this technology is both simple and economically efficient.
The next stage is loading of the ice block on the trimaran-ledovoz. The trimaran-ledovoz is a new kind of vessels designed for the transportation of large-sized cargoes, loading of which is carried out directly from the water surface into the hold. Let us describe one of this vessels and its loading technology (fig. 2).
The middle hull of the trimaran-ledovoz is intended for loading of ice-blocks. The middle hulls of the trimaran-ledovoz are built with an appropriate displacement, and being supplied with engines, make the trimaran exceptionally steady and maneuverable that is very important when loading ice, and provide an opportunity to gather the cruising speed of over 20 knots/hour in loaded condition. Such the speed is necessary for the optimal turnover of the vessels and profitability of transportation.
The trimaran-ledovoz, by maneuvering with the help of both screw propellers, runs on an ice block with its stern opened and as if "swallows" it. Initially the ice-block gets into the receiving compartment. Then the stern closes and water is pumped into the receiving compartment. When the water lifts the ice-block up to the level of the hold, the ice-block is pulled into the transit compartment. The partition separating the transit compartment from the receiving one closes, and the rest of the water is pumped out from the receiving compartment back into the sea. After that the partition separating the transit compartment from the hold opens allowing to shift the ice-block inside the trimaran-ledovoz. Then the partition returns to its previous position (fig. 3). This procedure is repeated until the hold is filled.
The transportation stage begins. The transportation by sea of ice-blocks weighing many thousand tons has its own particularities. Owing to the huge size of the hold of the trimaran-ledovoz, specifics of loading and transportation of ice, the body of the hold is made twofold for ensuring of the rigidity of the construction, heat-insulation and for solving of other important problems arising during transportation of ice. The vessel is supplied with a refrigerator powerful enough for icing of ice-blocks to the walls of the hold in order to prevent shifting of the ice-blocks in the hold during transportation. The vessel's heat equipment will defrost the bottom and the side walls of the hold before unloading of the ice-blocks.
The unloading is the final stage. A block of ice, unloaded from the trimaran-ledovoz into water in a port of destination, is hauled up to a quay of a special design by the means of high-capacity winches fixed at the coast. The pulled out of water ice-block gets into a special chute, by which it is routed to a situated near the coast special ice-receiving plant with the transparent top. By regulating the access of the sunlight and inflow of hot outside air, at the output we will get the necessary for bottling amount of cold water and cool air required by a city. The calculations have shown that 50 thousand tons of ice when thawing (depending on its own temperature), for example, can cool off by 20 degrees from 170 million to one billion cubic metres of hot air.
In order to avoid deadheading (empty voyages) of the returning back after delivery of ice trimarans-ledovozes, the Author has offered to use a so called barcon (derivative from words "barge" and "container"). The barcon is built constructively in the form of a mini-barge and is stowed for transportation inside the hold of the trimaran-ledovoz. It is intended for transportation of all kinds of cargoes, depending on its constructional execution. These cargoes could be oil, liquefied gas, containers, bulk cargo etc. The loading and unloading of barcons on the trimaran-ledovoz directly from water into the hold and vice versa is performed the same way as the loading and unloading of an ice-blocks.
The special attention, when building trimarans-ledovozes, should be drawn to environmental safety of their marine engines in order to except a possibility of pollution of the both Antarctic and Arctic seas.
Total costs on realization of Project "Alive Water" for countries of the Arabian Peninsula amount to about 3,2 billion US dollars. The Project is compensated after delivering the half-yearly need in both ice and water at the cost of 20 US cent for a litre of water.
It should be noted that neither formally, nor in fact the Project affects decisions of the Convention of the UN for Antarctic Continent of 1956, since it is proposed to extract ice from icebergs far from the coast, while ice is yet water, but not mineral resources of the Continent that have been prohibited for mining according to the Convention.
Now, after the recognition of both importance and reality of the Project to the solution of problems of environmental protection and supplying the Region with fresh water, it is necessary to solve financial problems of the design and technological stage, after which it is expected to finance building of fleet of trimarans-ledovozes, necessary coastal infrastructure and other costs stipulated in the Project.
In order to prove the prospects of the chosen way, it is necessary to have an opportunity of its realization in one or several countries requiring the water and capable of bearing certain financial expenses. The main water consumer on the Arabian Peninsula is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - the most powerful and dynamically developing country of the region.
Its rapidly growing population has exceeded 20 million. Having accepted the above-mentioned norm for one person, we'll receive the annual water requirement of the country - this counts for 18 million 250 thousand tons, that corresponds to 20 million tons of ice.
So, what will be the cost of this project? What will be the cost price of a litre-bottle of this water? It proves to be very low. So low that after realization of the Saudi Arabia's one year need in the drinking water at the relatively low price of 20 cents for a litre-bottle, the net profit will already form more than three billion dollars. Let us illustrate our calculations.
Today the cost of building of a modern tanker of 50 thousand tons displacement forms about 30-60 million US dollars. Taking into account the peculiarities of a trimaran-ledovoz's design, the approximate cost of its construction will amount to 100 million USD. Since it has got an opportunity of obtaining credit bearing no interest in the Arabian countries, then having taken it for 20 years, we should pay out 5 million USD annually. Assuming a vessel to make 10 trips for ice every year, we'll receive 0,5 million USD from each trip as the sum of deductions on account of the credit repayment. More 0,5 million USD of deductions from each trip we'll schedule on costs of exploitation, salary etc.
The total costs of one trip will form:
In order to make 10 trips annually, it is necessary to go to the Antarctic Continent and come back in one month. The distance from the Antarctic Continent to the Saudi Arabia and back forms about 22 thousand km.
In a day the trimaran-ledovoz will cover about
For the delivery of an annual requirement for 20 million tons of ice it is needed:
In addition to these profits, the transportation of the passing cargoes on the way back will also bring large incomes. Depending on the cargo, freight, distance the return journey with the barcons onboard can bring from several millions up to several dozens of million dollars. But in this case it will be necessary to increase the quantity of vessels. With the increasing in their quantity the capability of transportation of the passing (and not really) cargoes on return journeys to the Antarctic Continent will grow. Let's define a minimum payment for a trip with the barcons as 3 million USD. Then for one year we'll get:
Altogether, for one year the ice-shipping fleet serving the Saudi Arabia can bring at the minimum 5 billion US dollars of profit.
The participation in water sale of wholesale and retail will also considerably increase the amount of profit, and hence the project's profitability. Per day will be loaded-unloaded:
Taking into account various kinds of delays on the way it is necessary to envisage doubled-tripled through-put of the coast infrastructure.
Although the given calculations are just approximate (with the obviously undervalued profitability), but are sufficient enough to become a starting-point for the developing of the full-scaled initial designing and feasibility report of the given project. Such high profitability of the project is stipulated by the following factors:
Here it doesn't contain any calculations over the possible utilization of the trimaran-ledovoz as a tourist cruiser, but they will certainly have a huge potential. The arrangement of the equipment and trimming of the trimaran's side hulls as of the tourist cruiser will increase the project's profitability.
Author of the Project Hamid Yusupovich Khalidov for the last three years has carried out a huge scientific and research work. There all reasons to assert that this great creative and intellectual work has resulted in solving of set tasks. The found by the Author brilliant engineering solutions allowed to create new technologies of receiving ice, water and cool air, to minimize costs at each stage of the technical chain and to obtain of the competitive cost price - 1-2 US cents for a litre of the received water that will make possible the implementation of the Project and will bring the following results:
Project "Alive Water" was reported and approved at numerous scientific and economic councils, conferences, forums (The International Scientific Conference dedicated to the 275th anniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and 50th anniversary of the Daghestan Scientific Centre RAS, 21 May 1999, Makhachkala, Russia; The Saint-Petersburg's Economic Forum 2000, 13-17 June 2000, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; The First World Engineers' Convention, 19-21 June 2000, Hannover, Germany; The Second International Euro-Asian Conference on Transport, 12-13 September 2000, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; etc.). A computer film describing the technologies of the Project was being constantly demonstrated on television screens of the Russian Exposition as one of Russia's leading scientific projects presented at the World Exhibition EXPO-2000 was being held in Hannover from 1 June till 30 October 2000.
Project has already been supported by the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Transport of the RF, Ministry of Science and Technologies of the Russian Federation. Resolution ¹36 from 17 February 1999 of the State Expertise of the Ministry of Science and Technologies of the Russian Federation, where it was pointed at "the importance and prestige for the Russian Federation to appear an initiator of such global scale Project, and also at the obvious interest of our country in obtaining of billion dollar (US dollars) orders for the building of special vessels and equipment...", has become a clear recognition of significance of the Project.
There are no reasons for ecologists to worry about the probable consequences for the nature of Antarctic Continent, Greenland, Alaska, because of ice delivery. If to accept for the 40-million population of the Arabian Peninsula a daily water and food consumption as 2,5 litres, then they will need one billion tons of ice annually. This makes just 0,04 cubic kilometre of ice. For comparison: just one shelf glacier Emery in Antarctic Continent contains more than 10 thousand cubic kilometres of ice. Each summer more than 5 thousand large icebergs and ice-floes thawing and dissolving in ocean water. Their amounts are so large that practically cannot be estimated. According to scientists' data, in the North and South Poles of the Earth about 2 billion tons of precipitates fall annually. The ice reserves do not decrease due to constantly ongoing water circulation processes in the nature.
So on one side we have an infinitely small, in comparison with total ice reserves, piece of ice, and on the other - the health and life of millions of people and the environmental safety of the Arabian Peninsula.
The full-scale implementation of the Project will allow:
Project "Alive Water" solves the problem of supplying the population and economics of countries of the Arabian Peninsula with water, cool air and ice at a reasonable competitive cost price.
The implementation of the Project in a very favourable way will affect the ecology of the environment, underground water resources, will save hydrocarbon fuel of the Region.
The implementation of the Project in the Region can serve as a starting and an example for its expansion on the world scale.
Project "Alive Water", regardless of its large scale and uniqueness, is feasible and is necessary for countries of the Arabian Peninsula today and for the future. In case of its approval and support by the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, their governments as early as in the nearest future could start its implementation. The Project of the XXI century, meeting the national interests, aimed at commercial success, technically workable and ecologically irreproachable. The Project, implementation of which will introduce the countries of the Arabian Peninsula to the whole world as a states using its financial power for the welfare of their people and technical progress.
This Project becomes especially promising and topical if to be considered from a viewpoint of realization of the Program "Life after oil". In 10-20 years the oil exporting countries of the Arabian Peninsula could become the largest carriers and suppliers of the thawed water to all water-requiring countries and regions of the world. According to the UN's data, in the nearest 25-30 years several billion people will suffer water shortage, whose needs will require more than two thousand trimarans-ledovozes. This will give the countries of the Arabian Peninsula an opportunity to maintain the achieved, owing to oil export, living standards of the population and successfully develop in the XXI century. Thus, step by step, year after year the Arabian Peninsula will turn into a blossoming garden for the welfare of its inhabitants and millions of pilgrims all over the world.
Project "Alive Water" is versatile and applicable for any region of the world, located in torrid zone of the Earth as well as in moderate latitudes. The expansion and implementation of the Project on the world scale will positively influence upon stabilization of the world's climate and ecology, retarding negative processes (the growing greenhouse effect, excess expenditure of the atmospheric oxygen over its reproduction etc.) occurring today in the world.
For countries and regions located in moderate latitudes, where summer temperatures are not very high, and, hence, there is no need in cool air, it is not necessary to build specialized ice-receiving plants. The ice will be utilized immediately after cutting ice-blocks into the smaller-sized chunks and/or ice crumbs.
The Project envisages the allocation of plants producing soft drinks on the basis of the thawed water in tropical and subtropical zones on islands and continents (taking into account sunny days and high temperatures), that will allow to create the world network on production and sale of beverages on the basis of the thawed water received from ice. For example, a trimaran-ledovoz loaded with ice in Antarctic Continent unloads this ice at an ice-receiving plant located in Dubaii. Then the vessel having loaded a finished produce (beverages), transports this produce to South Africa. From there the trimaran-ledovoz returns to Antarctic Continent to get ice and so forth.
I'd like to relieve ecologists' anxiety concerning probable consequences for nature of the activity on ice extraction in the Antarctic Continent, Greenland, Alaska. If for one billion people, requiring the water, make the norm of consumption 2,5 litres per a day, for a year they'll need one billion tons of ice, that is just one cubic kilometre. For comparison: just one shelf glacier Emery in the Antarctic Continent contains more than 10 thousand cubic kilometres of ice. And the volumes of the thawing and dissolving of icebergs and ice-floes in the seawater are so huge, that practically cannot be estimated. The ice reserves do not decrease due to the constantly ongoing processes of water circulation in the nature. So on one side we have an infinitely small, in comparison with total ice reserves, piece of ice, and on another - health and life of several hundred million people.
Except the above-mentioned advantages of the given Project, there is one more very important, though not the least argument in favour of its expansion on the world scale. About ten billion tons of standard fuel was combusted all over the world in 1995. Specialists expect that by the year 2000 the fuel consumption on the planet will double. With all this, forests on the planet, even providing that they won't be cut down and will only be planted, will hardly be able to maintain such indispensable for life oxygen concentration in the atmosphere. Today the annual over-expenditure of oxygen over its reproduction has reached 10 billion tons (as is known, decrease in oxygen allowance in the atmosphere from the required 20-21% to 17-18% provokes an oxygen deficiency, asphyxia and death).
Therefore, choosing the strategy of supplying 3-4 billion people in the nearest 20-30 years with water (according to the forecasts of the United Nations' experts) should be considered very carefully, having reckoned up all possible ecological consequences.
The implementation of this Project will become an active and practical policy on putting into practice of decisions of the Kyoto Protocol. The Project shows the solution of the given problem that allows to give up building a great number of water-desalinating plants working on both nuclear and organic fuel, which will no longer excrete a huge amount of heat and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, enhancing the greenhouse effect and burning such indispensable atmospheric oxygen. And millions and millions of tons of ice exported from the high latitudes and caused to thaw in tropics, will bring its positive effect in the improvement of climate on the Earth and retarding of negative environmental changes occurring in the world.
The Project shows the way and opportunity to break this formed vicious circle, when for supplying of people with water, cool air and ice, it is necessary to burn irreplaceable hydrocarbon, nuclear fuel and atmospheric oxygen, worsening the environment, climate and causing desertification and dehydration, then for supplying of greater number of water-requiring people - to burn greater amount of fuel and atmospheric oxygen and so forth, heading to the environmental catastrophe threatening life on the Earth.
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