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Khalidov.net

Khalidov.net
19.03.2013



Hamid Khalidov, Institute of Physics, DSC RAS, Makhachkala, Russia
Ullubiy Khalidov

On structure and properties of water at phase transitions

The processes happening on nuclear, intra- and intermolecular levels of the water molecules at phase transitions ice water and water ice are investigated and explained on the basis of provisions of the hypothesis about structure of atomic nucleus published by authors in 2005.

The hypothesis about stable arrangement of all protons of atomic nucleus on its surface and all neutrons within the nucleus has been proposed in the book titled Seeking knowledge published in 20051. And now we think that it would be useful to return to its consideration supporting on experimental data obtained with the Oak Ridge Linear Accelerator (ORELA)2 (USA) and confirming, in my opinion, the proposed hypothesis.

According to the hypothesis, the nuclei with sufficient number of protons (taking into account number of neutrons and volume occupied by them) aspired to accept the spherical form which is the most stable under external pressure. The sphere of such nuclei consists of protons. Neutrons are located between protons, lower of their level forming the rigid framework for proton sphere and strengthening the nuclear stability in whole.

As it is stated in the paper of American physicists, experimental data refute with fidelity 99,997 % the model accepted at the present, which considers that nucleon movement in the nucleus is chaotic and described by mathematical theory of random matrices.

But it follows that it will be necessary to refuse both old, planetary atomic model and presentation of atomic electrons as electron clouds which hovering freely in atomic volume, that is dominated in modern physics, and to locate each electron strictly against each nuclear protons.

Let`s accept this supposition as the work hypothesis and test its applicability to understand the structure of water molecule H2O and the processes with take place within in the time of phase transitions ice water and water-ice.

According to the hypothesis the sphere of oxygen atom nucleus must consists from eight protons (18), which are located in eights apexes of conditional cube (as the most stable volumetric geometrical body to be inscribed in the sphere (Fig. 1). The neutrons of oxygen atom nucleus must form within this proton cube the neutron one (n1n8), which edge length and distance from each its apex to two nearest apexes of the proton cube are equal: p1n1=n1p2; p2n2=n2p3; p3n3=n3p4; p4n4=n4p1; p5n5=n5p6; p6n6=n6p7; p7n7=n7p8; p8n8=n8p5.

Fig.1

Such arrangement of the neutrons in oxygen atom nucleus provides maximal stability of the protons of nuclear sphere, since each apex of the neutron cube is stabilized by maximal (five) possible quantity of links. So, for apex n1 it is n1p1=n1p2, n1n2=n1n4=n1n5.

The structure of oxygen nucleus and its proton sphere under consideration allows to calculate angle p1-O-p3, formed by the segments connecting the cube centre with the protons p1 and p3, located in opposite apexes of the one face of the cube. It was equal 109. But according to experimental data the angle between nuclei of hydrogen and oxygen atoms 1--2 in the water molecule (in ice state) is 109, too.

It allows to suppose that two nuclei of hydrogen atom (protons) 1 and 2 are located against two protons of oxygen atom located in the apices of cube 1 and 3.

And, according to the hypothesis, two protons of the nuclei of different atoms may be bind in stable state only with the one common electron located on the action line of their forces. For water molecule it is 1 on the segment of the angle 11 side, and 3 on 23.

It follows from logic of reasoning and corresponds to the size of hydrogen and oxygen atoms in water molecule. And it is understandable that in these structure of water molecule, location of two electrons on each segment of angle 11 and 23 side against 1 1, and 2 and 3, does not allow to create even low stable composition because of the same sign of their charges.

Fig.2

As it is known when the temperature (energy) of water molecule (in ice state) (Fig.1 and Fig.2) rises up to phase transition values, the rapid single approach of hydrogen atom nuclei 1 and 2 takes place which results in decrease of angle 1--2 to 104,5 and compression of segments 11 and 23 of angle 1-- 2 side (Fig.3 and Fig.4).

Fig.3

Fig.4

And according to the hypothesis cause of this phenomenon is that because in the moment of the phase transition quantity of intramolecular energy in part 1--2 of molecule volume is more than in part 1 - 2 of molecule volume, the pressure force directed on approach of 1 and 2, exceeds the pressure force directed on their repulsion.

To better understand causes of this phenomenon, I think, that it will be advisably to compare it with phenomenon of approach of two boats located near and parallel in smooth water, which takes place because force of water pressure on boat borders from the side of large free water space exceeds force of water pressure on boat borders from the side of small water space between boats.

According to the hypothesis, just decrease increase of 1-2 distance causing change of location of all protons and electrons in molecule, including common electrons 1 and 3 of links 1-1 and 2-3, decrease increase of angle 1--2 and distances 1-1, 2-3, the form of water molecule itself with its structural feature potential well (PW) are causes of unique physical and chemical properties of water in its all three aggregative states.

To check these provisions let`s investigate processes which take place at phase transitions in water molecules and between them that also should allow to understand causes of anomalous behavior of water density in temperature interval from 0 to 3,98.

In the time of phase transition ice-water with no heat motion, decisive influence on jump-like process of increase of water density, according to the hypothesis, is rendered by new intramolecular arrangement of nuclei and electrons of water molecules giving possibility of appearance of intermolecular links between neighboring molecules and which are exhibited simultaneously with phase transition and appeared between 2 positive poles 1 and 2 of hydrogen nuclei of one water molecule and 2 negative poles of pair of electrons 15 and 17 oxygen nucleus of other molecule.

At new locations 1 - 11, 2- 21, 15 - 151 and 17 - 171 distances between 11 and 151, are less than distances between 1 and 15, and, accordingly 21 and 171 are less than 2 and 17, that allows to realize attraction forces and to approach molecules along lines 11 - 151 and 21 - 171 of directionality of action forces of 2 positive poles at hydrogen nuclei 11 and 21 of one molecule and 2 negative poles 151 and 171 oxygen nucleus of other molecule (Fig.5).

Appearance of these forces is caused by jump-like change of location of both nuclei of hydrogen atoms in molecule volume from position 1 in position 11, and one of 2 in position 21 and electrons of oxygen atom nucleus from position 15 in position 151, and from 17 in position 171, i. e. with jump-like change of location and direction of action forces of positive and negative poles, that gives jump-like rise of attraction forces between molecules, causes their mutual approach and, as result of this approach, increase of the water density.


Fig.5

While approaching and thereby increasing water density on 9 % molecules stop because of equilibrium between attraction and repulsion forces (Fig. 6).

Fig.6

That is attraction force of links, acting between nuclei of hydrogen atoms 11 and 21 of one molecule and two electrons 151 and 171 of nucleus of oxygen atom of other molecule is balanced by repulsion force created by two electrons 21 and 41 located against protons 21 and 41 of nucleus of oxygen atom of one molecule and two electrons, 161 and 181, located against protons 16 and 18 of nucleus of oxygen atom of other molecule.

At this approach and compacting the borders of potential wells of molecules are crossed and molecules are located in the part of potential wells of each other. Such assumption results from following arguments.

The phase transition water ice together with already described phenomena is accompanied with sharp increase of negative energy level in potential wells of water molecules when electrons of oxygen atom nucleus of one molecule are approaching each with other at returning on initial positions 2 and 4 from positions 21 and 41 and repulsing from electrons of oxygen atom nucleus of other molecule returned on positions 16 and 18 from positions 161 and 181.

This mutual repulsion expels molecules from the WP of each other that causes jump like gain of water (ice) volume on 9%. If molecules should not located in PWs of each other, than their rapid repulsion and rapid increase of water (ice) volume should not take place at phase transition water ice. And transformation of water in ice is considered as result of rapid increase and, consequently, rapid cooling of intermolecular and intramolecular space of water molecules (Fig.7).

Fig.7

At following cooling intermolecular and intramolecular levels of energy and distances will be changed many times that will give the many varieties of ice.

The hypothesis supposes that change of location of 1 and 2 causes bias of location of the protons 1 and 3 of oxygen atom nucleus. This causes deformation of neutron cube, which, in turn, deforms proton sphere of oxygen atom nucleus in such a way that all its protons change their location and proton cube form of oxygen atom nucleus is transformed in parallelepiped where lower and upper squares of cube become rhombi.

But it, as the saying runs, is the picture in the first approximation. And while experiments and calculations would not be carried out it is early to say about all changes in parameters of nucleus of water molecule oxygen and in water molecule in whole at phase transitions.

But and in the first approximation we may say about following changes:

  • the angle 1Ζ2 is transformed in the angle 11Ζ21 and decreases to 104,5.
  • the protons 1 and 3 approach, occupy positions 11 and 31 and as if are sunk a little inside a nucleus that gives decreasing of 11 at its displacement in position 11 11 and decreasing of 23 at displacement in position 2131.
  • approaching of the protons 5 and 7 causes approaching of opposite electrons 5 and 7, and occupation of positions 51 and 71 by them. Approaching between electrons 2 and 6, and occupation of positions 21 and 61, by them and approaching 4 and 8 and occupation of positions 41 and 81.
  • as result of these approaching the fields of higher concentration of negative energy are formed in water molecule between electrons 51 71, 21 61 and 41 81 which are able to break chemical bonds of majority matters that gives to water such high dissolving capacities.
  • structure of molecules is the direct consequence of structure of nuclei of chemical element atoms and more exactly their proton spheres. That is atoms forming molecules are connected each with other just through common electrons of atom nuclei protons or with other words proton fields.
  • field between electrons2 and 4 in positions 21 and 41, by virtue of increased distance between them become field with lowered level of negative energy, i. e. potential well (PW), which, as it will be shown below, is cause of anomalous behavior of water density in range from 0C to 3,98.

As it is known anomalous behavior of water density its increasing is observed with rise of temperature from 0C to 3,98 and beginning of heat motion.

According to the hypothesis increase of water density in considered temperature range is caused by continuation (after phase transition) of process of approach of water molecules which takes place owing to further interpenetration and location of molecules in remained free volume of PW of molecules.

The reason of this interpenetration is arising heat motion of molecules, which pressure force begins to exceed resistance forces of energetic levels of potential wells.

That is the force of arising heat motion of molecules aspire to overcome the forces of mutual repulsion acting between opposite fields of negative energy formed by electrons 21 - 41 of one molecule and electrons 161181 of other molecule. But, because, PW is located in the central part of 21 41 field and opposite, the central part of 161 - 181 field contains energy concentration, punching of one molecule in other and their approach become possible.

As the result, penetrating molecule stops at temperature 3.98 (most probably achieving bottom of molecule PW in front, and its borders in edges). Balance between forces of punching and resistance forces of PW energy levels aspiring to restore their initial position is established. And since these processes goes parallel in the whole volume of water maximal water density is fixed in this moment.

When temperature rises from 3.98 to 8, increasing energy of molecular PW and arising heat motion of the mated and surrounding molecules expel molecules from PW of each other. Water density is decreased smoothly.

At decrease of water temperature from 3.98C to 0C water density decreases because forces of mutual repulsion of fields 2141 and 161181 begins to exceed forces of pressure of decreasing heat motion of molecules and as result expel molecules from the part of PW volume.

At decrease of water temperature to values of phase transition water - ice nuclei of hydrogen 11 and 21 are returned jump-likely in its initial location 1 2, and thereby, return in their initial locations protons, neutrons and electrons, segments 11 and 23 of angle 1-- 2 sides and restore angle 1--2 up to 10928". Phase transition is completed, water is turned in ice and increased in volume on 9% and obtained new physical properties.

Presented approach to understanding of principles of location and interaction of protons and neutrons at construction of atom nuclei allows also to explain reason of the higher stability of magic nuclei, unstability of nuclei of radioactive elements of Mendeleev`s table, Mgebe effect and so on.

Evidently is not random that oxygen atom nucleus having double magic number has sufficiently high stability that allows our water air world to exist in stable state.

P.S. This article lain throughout 2012 in the offices of Moscow's popular science magazines, but they have not been published, even as a hypothesis. Exposing it to this website, I expect that it will arouse the interest of the scientific community and the discussion of experts. It has twice reported at scientific advice DSC RAS.

References

  • Hamid Khalidov, Ullubiy Khalidov. Seeking knowledge. Makhachkala: Publishing house Novy den, 2005, ISBN 5-94434-052-5. p.33.
  • Physical Review Letters. Anomalous Fluctuations of s-Wave Reduced Neutron Widths of 192,194Pt, http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i7/e072502
  • G. G. Malenkov. Structure and dynamics of liquid water. Zhurnal strukturnoy chimii, 2006, v. 47, Supplement, pp. 5-35.
  • G. G. Malenkov. Uspekhi fizicheskoy chimii, 2001
  • V. I. Tarkhanov. Water, its physical and structural properties (by materials of http://www.isbu.ac.uk/water).
  • S. V. Zenin Water. - ., 2001.
  • Masaru Emoto. Messages from Water, Vol. 1, Hado Publishing, 1999. Messages from Water, Vol. 2, Sunmark Publishing, 2001.


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